I choose to speak about Mod because it is one of the most complicated and confusing to understand for me.
Some authors say that Mod appeared during the 1950s and others during 1960s.
In the 1950s, Mod was used to describe people who liked modern Jazz or played this music.
Developped during the 1960s, Mod appeared in the south of England and in London. Young people did not have to help finantially their parents and could keep the money from the after)school job. Thus, they spent money in fashion because for Mod people fashion « equal » perfection.
Symbol of the Mods is the Royal Air Force roundel
Mods wanted to break up with the traditionnal values and places, behaviour og England.
Some authors as Shari Benstock and Suzanne Ferriss explained the behaviour of these young english by:
» at the « core of the British Mod rebellion was a blatant fetishising of the American consumer culture » that had « eroded the moral fiber of England. » In doing so, the mods « mocked the class system that had gotten their fathers nowhere », and created a « rebellion based on consuming pleasures » ranging from Italian suits and scooters to US soul records. »
(Wikipedia, On Fashion (Shari Benstock and Suzanne Ferriss, 1994))
The fashion Mods is a mix of the style of French and Italian men. The suits were the fondamental element of the Mods style. Other imporant clothes were button-down shirts, cashmere jumpers and narrow ties, narrow-toed shoes called winkle-pickers.
The scooter was the best of the accessories of the Mod boy. Vespa or Lambrettas, the italian scooters had perfect shapes and style corresponding with the Mods fashion. They liked to customize the scooter with their name, lot of accessories (luggages, crash bars…)
The famous places where the Mods liked to meet were: The Roaring Twenties, The Scene, La Discothèque, The Flamingo and The Marquee in London or Twisted Wheel Club in Manchester. THey began to listen modern Jazz
The 1950s (modern Jazz): Dave Brubeck « Take five »
Then, they listened black American music, rhythm and blues and soul.
Examples of music bands and their sonds:
-Small Faces :Hey Girl
-The Kinks: Sunny afternoon (famous)
-The Yardbirds: Shape of things
and The Who: Quadrophenia
Amphetamine is a important part of the Mod subculture. They created a drug called Drinamyl (mix of amphetamine and barbiturate), it was nicknamed « purple hearts » in some bars.